Table 4

Conditions reaching consensus to always or usually include in a multimorbidity measure, based on Delphi surveys

Body system (based on ICD-10 chapters)Always include (n=24)Usually include (unless a good reason not to in a particular context) (n=35)*
Cardiovascular diseaseStroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, peripheral artery diseaseHeart valve disorders, arrhythmia, venous thromboembolic disease, aneurysm, nypertension (treated and untreated)
Metabolic and endocrine diseaseDiabetes, Addison’s disease, cystic fibrosisThyroid disorders
Respiratory diseaseChronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthmaBronchiectasis
Neurological diseaseParkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, paralysisTransient ischaemic attack, peripheral neuropathy, chronic primary pain
CancerSolid organ cancers, haematological cancers, metastatic cancersMelanoma, benign cerebral tumours that can cause disability
Mental and behavioural disorderDementia, schizophreniaDepression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, drug or alcohol misuse, eating disorder, autism, post-traumatic stress disorder
Musculoskeletal diseaseConnective tissue diseaseOsteoarthritis, long term musculoskeletal problems due to injury, osteoporosis, gout
Digestive diseaseChronic liver disease, inflammatory bowel diseaseChronic pancreatic disease, peptic ulcer
Urogenital disorderChronic kidney disease, end stage kidney diseaseEndometriosis, chronic urinary tract infection
Haematological disorderAnaemia (including pernicious anaemia, sickle cell anaemia)
Eye diseaseVision impairment that cannot be corrected
Ear diseaseHearing impairment that cannot be corrected, Meniere’s disease
Infectious diseaseHIV/AIDSChronic Lyme disease, tuberculosis, post-acute covid-19
Congenital diseaseCongenital disease and chromosomal abnormalities
  • ICD-10=international classification of diseases, 10th revision.

  • *Untreated and treated hypertension were combined. Conditions that require surveillance (including cancers) were agreed to be included by both sets of panellists, and thus "cancers that require surveillance" was not stated separately in the list.