Table 3

Association between coeliac disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, with progressive adjustments

Cases in participants with coeliac disease (n=2083)Cases in participants with no coeliac disease (n=467 012)Hazard ratio (95% CI)P valueχ2
All CVD disease: 
 Standard adjustments21840 4691.27 (1.11 to 1.45)<0.00111.1
 Lifestyle factors21840 4691.27 (1.11 to 1.45)<0.00111.2
 Major CVD risk factors21840 4691.44 (1.26 to 1.65)<0.00125.3
Ischaemic heart disease: 
 Standard adjustments18233 3741.30 (1.12 to 1.50)<0.00111.3
 Lifestyle factors18233 3741.30 (1.12 to 1.50)<0.00111.2
 Major CVD risk factors18233 3741.5 (1.30 to 1.75)<0.00126.5
Myocardial Infarction:
 Standard adjustments7012 7831.34 (1.06 to 1.70)0.015.5
 Lifestyle factors7012 7831.35 (1.07 to 1.71)0.015.8
 Major CVD risk factors7012 7831.59 (1.25 to 2.01)<0.00112.7
 Standard adjustments4688131.13 (0.85 to 1.52)0.390.7
 Lifestyle factor4688131.15 (0.86 to 1.53)0.350.8
 Major CVD risk factors4688131.20 (0.89 to 1.60)0.231.4
  • Hazard ratios are progressively adjusted for a standard set of adjustments, lifestyle factors, and major CVD risk factors. Standard adjustments are for region, sex, Townsend deprivation index score, education, year of birth, year of recruitment and ethnicity, with age as underlying time variable; lifestyle factors adjustments are for physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption; and major cardiovascular risk factors adjustments are for body mass index, total cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, cholesterol lowering medication, family history of heart disease, and diabetes. CI=confidence interval.